Saturday, December 13, 2008

Water is Weird!

As a gas, water is one of lightest known, as a liquid it is much denser than expected and as a solid it is much lighter than expected when compared with its liquid form.
At 4°C water expands on heating or cooling.
Hot water freezes faster than cold water and ice melts when compressed except at high pressures when liquid water freezes when compressed. No other material is commonly found as solid, liquid and gas.
clipped from

Water phase anomalies e

  1. Water has unusually high melting
    . [Explanation]

  2. Water has unusually high boiling
    . [Explanation]

  3. Water has unusually high critical
    . [Explanation]

  4. Solid water exists
    in a wider variety of stable (and metastable) crystal and
    amorphous structures than other materials. [Explanation]

  5. The thermal conductivity
    of ice reduces with increasing pressure. [Explanation]

  6. The structure of liquid water changes at high pressure. [Explanation]

  7. Supercooled water has two phases and
    a second critical
    at about -91°C. [Explanation]

  8. Liquid water is
    easily supercooled but glassified with difficulty. [Explanation]

  9. Liquid water exists at very low temperatures and freezes on heating. [Explanation]

  10. Liquid water may be easily superheated. [Explanation]

  11. Hot water may freeze faster than cold
    water; the Mpemba effect. [Explanation]

  12. Warm water vibrates longer than cold
    water. [Explanation]

Heirarchy of anomalous properties of water, based on SPC/E model of Ref. 169
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