Tuesday, May 31, 2005
Jeanne's Trial (Part 2) (48 assessors present)
We warned and required her, on pain of law, to make oath as she had done the day before and to swear simply and absolutely to speak truth on all things in respect of which she should be questioned; to which she answered:
"I swore yesterday: that should be enough."
Again We required her to swear: we said to her, not even a prince, required to swear in a matter of faith, can refuse.
"I made oath to you yesterday," she answered, "that should be quite enough for you: you overburden me too much!"
Finally she made oath to speak truth on 'that which touches the Faith.'
Then Maitre Jean Beaupère, a well-known Professor of Theology, did, by Our order, question the said Jeanne. This he did as follows:
"First of all, I exhort you, as you have so sworn, to tell the truth on what I am about to ask you."
"You may well ask me some things on which I shall tell you the truth and some on which I shall not tell it you. If you were well informed about me, you would wish to have me out of your hands. I have done nothing except by revelation."
"How old were you when you left your father's house?"
"On the subject of my age I cannot vouch."
"In your youth, did you learn any trade ?"
"Yes, I learnt to spin and to sew; in sewing and spinning I fear no woman in Rouen. For dread of the Burgundians, I left my father's house and went to the town of Neufchateau,(1)....( There is no certain date for this event. By some it is placed between the first and second visits to Vaucouleurs, in 1428; by others, earlier, at the time of the Picard ravages of the neighborhood in the September of 1426.) in Lorraine, to the house of a woman named La Rousse, where I sojourned about fifteen days. When I was at home with my father, I employed myself with the ordinary cares of the house. I did not go to the fields with the sheep and the other animals. Every year I confessed myself to my own Cure, and, when he was prevented, to another Priest with his permission. Sometimes, also, two or three times, I confessed to the Mendicant Friars; this was at Neufchateau. At Easter I received the Sacrament of the Eucharist."
"Have you received the Sacrament of the Eucharist at any other Feast but Easter?"
"Pass that by [Passez outré]. I was thirteen when I had a Voice from God for my help and guidance. The first time that I heard this Voice, I was very much frightened; it was mid-day, in the summer, in my father's garden. I had not fasted the day before. I heard this Voice to my right, towards the Church; rarely do I hear it without its being accompanied also by a light. This light comes from the same side as the Voice. Generally it is a great light. Since I came into France I have often heard this Voice."
"But how could you see this light that you speak of, when the light was at the side?"
To this question she answered nothing, but went on to something else. " If I were in a wood, I could easily hear the Voice which came to me. It seemed to me to come from lips I should reverence. I believe it was sent me from God. When I heard it for the third time, I recognized that it was the Voice of an Angel. This Voice has always guarded me well, and I have always understood it; it instructed me to be good and to go often to Church; it told me it was necessary for me to come into France. You ask me under what form this Voice appeared to me? You will hear no more of it from me this time. It said to me two or three times a week: 'You must go into France.' My father knew nothing of my going. The Voice said to me: 'Go into France !' I could stay no longer. It said to me: 'Go, raise the siege which is being made before the City of Orleans. Go !' it added, 'to Robert de Baudricourt, (2)....(Robert de Baudricourt, Squire, Captain of Vaucouleurs in 1428; afterwards knighted and made Councilor and Chamberlain to the King and Bailly of Chaumont, 1454.) Captain of Vaucouleurs: he will furnish you with an escort to accompany you.' And I replied that I was but a poor girl, who knew nothing of riding or fighting. I went to my uncle and said that I wished to stay near him for a time. I remained there eight days. I said to him, 'I must go to Vaucouleurs.' (3).... (Of the ancient chateau the "Port de France" alone survives. From this gate Jeanne rode out with her escort to visit the King at Chinon. The crypt of the chapel remains, where Jeanne constantly prayed.) He took me there. When I arrived, I recognized Robert de Baudricourt, although I had never seen him. I knew him, thanks to my Voice, which made me recognize him. I said to Robert, 'I must go into France!' Twice Robert refused to hear me, and repulsed me. The third time, he received me, and furnished me with men; (4)....( This is said to have been on account of the impression produced on him by Jeanne's prediction, on February 12th : "To-day the gentle Dauphin has had a great hurt near the town of Orleans, and yet greater will he have if you do not soon send me to him." This 'great hurt' proved to be the Battle of Rouvray, in which the French and Scottish troops were defeated by the English under Sir John Fastolf.) the Voice had told me it would be thus. The Duke of Lorraine (5)....( Charles I, the reigning Duke de Lorraine in 1428, was in very bad health, and, having no son, the succession was a matter of some anxiety. He died in 1431, and was succeeded by his son-in-law, Rene of Anjou, who had married his only daughter, Isabella. This Rene was a brother of Queen Mary, wife of Charles VII, and father of, the English, Queen Margaret, married in 1441 to Henry VI.) gave orders that I should be taken to him. I went there. I told him that I wished to go into France. The Duke asked me questions about his health; but I said of that I knew nothing. I spoke to him little of my journey. I told him he was to send his son with me, together with some people to conduct me to France, and that I would pray to God for his health. I had gone to him with a safe-conduct: from thence I returned to Vaucouleurs. From Vaucouleurs I departed, dressed as a man, armed with a sword given me by Robert de Baudricourt, but without other arms. I had with me a Knight,(6)....(Jean de Novelomport, called de Metz, Bertrand de Poulengey, Colet de Vienne, the King's Messenger, and three servants.) a Squire, and four servants, with whom I reached the town of Saint Urbain, where I slept in an Abbey. On the way, I passed through Auxerre, where I heard Mass in the principal Church. Thenceforward I often heard my Voices."
"Who counseled you to take a man's dress?"
To this question she several times refused to answer. "In the end, she said: "With that I charge no one."
Many times she varied in her answers to this question. Then she said:
"Robert de Baudricourt made those who went with me swear to conduct me well and safely. 'Go,' said Robert de Baudricourt to me, 'Go! and let come what may!' I know well that God loves the Duke d'Orleans; I have had more revelations about the Duke d'Orleans than about any man alive, except my King. It was necessary for me to change my woman's garments for a man's dress. My counsel thereon said well.
"I sent a letter to the English before Orleans,(7)....(March 22nd, 1428.) to make them leave, as may be seen in a copy of my letter which has been read to me in this City of Rouen ; there are, nevertheless, two or three words in this copy which were not in my letter. Thus, 'Surrender to the Maid,' should be replaced by 'Surrender to the King.' The words, 'body for body' and ' chieftain in war' were not in my letter at all. (8)....(This letter appears later, p. 36. Jeanne may have forgotten its contents, as both these expressions occur; or the Clerics who acted as her amanuenses may have inserted them without her knowledge.)
"I went without hindrance to the King. Having arrived at the village of Saint Catherine de Fierbois, I sent for the first time to the Castle of Chinon, (9)....(Jeanne was entertained by command of the King in a small room on the first floor of the Tour de Coudray, within the Castle walls. Her room was approached by a staircase outside the tower. The vaulted roof of the room has fallen in and the fireplace is in ruins, but the room could easily be restored. Jeanne stayed here from March 8th to April 20th, 1429. She was two days at Chinon before she obtained access to the King.) where the King was. I got there towards mid-day, and lodged first at an inn. After dinner, I went to the King, who was at the Castle. When I entered the room where he was I recognized him among many others by the counsel of my Voice, which revealed him to me. I told him that I wished to go and make war on the English."
"When the Voice showed you the King, was there any light?"
"Did you see an Angel over the King?"
"Spare me. Pass on. Before the King set me to work, he had many apparitions and beautiful revelations."
"What revelations and apparitions had the King?"
"I will not tell you ; it is not yet time to answer you about them; but send to the King, and he will tell you. The Voice had promised me that, as soon I came to the King, he would receive me. Those of my party knew well that the Voice had been sent me from God; they have seen and known this Voice, I am sure of it. My King and many others have also heard and seen the Voices which came to me: there were there Charles de Bourbon (10).... (Charles de Bourbon, Count de Clermont Governor of the Duchy of the Bourbonnais and the Comte of Auvergne, during the captivity of his father in England.) and two or three others. There is not a day when I do not hear this Voice; and I have much need of it. But never have I asked of it any recompense but the salvation of my soul. The Voice told me to remain at Saint-Denis, in France; I wished to do so, but, against my will, the Lords made me leave. If I had not been wounded, I should never have left. After having quitted Saint-Denis, I was wounded in the trenches before Paris ;(11)....(On September 8th, 1429.) but I was cured in five days. It is true that I caused an assault to be made before Paris."
"Was it a Festival that day?"
"I think it was certainly a Festival."
"Is it a good thing to make an assault on a Festival ?"
" Pass on."
And as it appeared that enough had been done for today, We have postponed the affair to Saturday next, at 8 o'clock in the morning.